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Appreciation of printing and dyeing

Date: 2020-10-20

In ancient China, printing and dyeing not only have many colors and bright colors, but also have good color fastness and are not easy to fade. The ancient will be green (namely blue), red, yellow, white, black called five colors, is also the natural color, primary colors. Primary colors such as green, purple, pink and other colors, also known as intercolors. The sources of dyes are divided into mineral pigments and vegetable dyes.

Red mineral pigments are hematite and cinnabar. Hematite was used as early as the Caveman period, but since it was dark red, it was later used for prisoners. Cinnabar is also called dansha, bright color, more than four thousand years ago in Qinghai Liuwan cemetery on a man's body spread cinnabar. Yellow is stone yellow (arsenic sulfide) and yellow red (lead oxide), cyan for natural copper ore, white for lead powder and white mica, black for carbon black. The red in vegetable dyes can be extracted from madder, safflower, and sufang wood, while the yellow is extracted from gardenia, turmeric, and sophora japonica. The blue is indigo made from blue grass, hence the famous saying "what is green is blue, and what is green is blue". Black is mainly obtained from walnut, persimmon, oak and so on. When a certain dye is used, it is found that the colour of the fabric deepens with each dip. As a result, the dyeing process has developed from simple dip dyeing to jacket dyeing and mordant dyeing.

There are 24 colors of silk unearthed from the Tomb of tang Dynasty in Turpan, Xinjiang, among which only red ones are silver, water, scarlet, crimson and purple. There are as many as six kinds of yellow. On the basis of the primary color dyeing, the dyeing technique of different dyes also appeared, which made the fabric more colorful. By the Qing Dynasty, the chromatographic and color names related to dyeing developed from the vertical and horizontal coordination of natural colors to as many as hundreds of kinds. Mordant dyeing appeared as early as the spring and autumn period, that is, mordant dyeing is used. If you dye black with vegetable dyes, add a little jarosite, you can improve color fastness. In dyeing method, silk, yarn and cotton cloth can be woven before dyeing. And brocade, embroider needs to dye silk thread to knit again first.

In ancient China had put the printed fabric called "printing", so dyeing and printing process is divided into 﨟 valerian, folder valerian and pattern-dye several kinds.

1) wax printing, namely the wax. During the Qin and Han Dynasties, the southwest minorities first mastered the technique of using wax to prevent dyeing. It is made by drawing patterns on the fabric with melted wax, which is then dyed and boiled to create brilliant white flowers. Due to the shrinkage of wax after condensation or kneading, many cracks are generated. After dyeing, the color material penetrates into cracks, and irregular texture often appears on the decorative pattern of the finished product, forming a unique decorative effect. The method of batik is still in use today.

(2) folder valerian. In the Qin and Han dynasties, the flourishing Tang Dynasty was extremely popular. It is to use two carved designs of the same board, cloth sandwiched in the middle, in the engraving dyeing, into a pattern. Its design is characterized by symmetrical patterns, with the beauty of the law of equilibrium. It can be dyed in two or three colors.

(3) the pattern-dye. Is a common folk method of printing and dyeing. Can divide normally two kinds: it is to use a line to tie cloth into all sorts of decorative pattern, after nail-bound into dye, the nail-bound part cannot dye, form pattern of white flower of lubricious ground, have the effect of dizzy catch. The other is to wrap the grain on the fabric and then dye it to form various patterns.

In addition to the above main printing and dyeing methods, the Spring and Autumn and warring States period also appeared letterpress printing and other processes. Until the invention of perot printing machine in France in 1834, China has been the most developed hand printing and dyeing technology in the world.

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